Emergence Setting and Hydrology
Flowing spring, emerges into one or more stream channels.
For Example: Pheasant Branch, WI
Bornhauser (1913) first described rheocrene springs as features where discharge emerges into a defined channel. Spring-fed streams are also referred to as springbrooks or spring runs. Hynes (1970) further described them as areas with relatively uniform temperature and the de-oxygenated groundwater contribution to the stream. Springer et al. (2008) further recognized a continuum between channels that are springs discharge dominated and those dominated by surface runoff. Runoff-dominated springs are influenced by flood-related disturbance, whereas springflow-dominated springs tend to provide stable habitat that allows for evolutionary microadaptation.