Emergence Setting and Hydrology

Sketch of Limnocrene spring type. A=aquifer; I=impermeable stratum; S=spring source.Fault lines are shown where appropriate. The inverted triangle represents the water table or piezometric surface.

Emergence of confined or unconfined aquifers in pool(s).

For Example: Grassi Lakes, AB, Canada


Limnocrene springs emerge as groundwater flows from confined or unconfined aquifers into one or more pools. Due to their relatively uniform temperature and chemistry, the sources of these springs may support aquatic species that are different from surrounding habitat influenced by surface water. This spring type was first described by Bornhauser (1913), then reinforced by Hynes (1970).