Hillslope

Emergence Setting and Hydrology

Sketch of Hillslope spring type. A=aquifer; I=impermeable stratum; S=spring source. The inverted triangle represents the water table or piezometric surface. Fault lines are shown where appropriate

Emerges from confined or unconfined aquifers on a hillslope (30-60 degree slope); often indistinct or multiple sources.

For Example: Ram Creek Hot Spring, BC, Canada

Description

Springer et al. (2008) proposed hillslope springs as a unique sphere of discharge because of the diverse array of microhabitats they support. The slope gradient is usually negatively related to floral diversity. Aspect also strongly influences diversity, although those relationships have yet to be rigorously quantified.

Fence Fault Garden Spring on the bank of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park.

Fence Fault Garden Spring on the bank of the Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park.