Emergence Setting and Hydrology
Emerges from confined or unconfined aquifers on a hillslope (30-60 degree slope); often indistinct or multiple sources.
For Example: Ram Creek Hot Spring, BC, Canada
Springer et al. (2008) proposed hillslope springs as a unique sphere of discharge because of the diverse array of microhabitats they support. The slope gradient is usually negatively related to floral diversity. Aspect also strongly influences diversity, although those relationships have yet to be rigorously quantified.