Emergence Setting and Hydrology
Emergence in a cave in mature to extreme karst with sufficiently large conduits.
For Example: Pivot Rock Cave, AZ (pictured)
Cave springs, most common in karst terrain, emerge entirely within a cave environment. Although there are many different types of karst features (Ford and Williams 2007), cave springs are most common in the "mature" to "extreme" karst ground conditions of Waltham and Fookes (2003) with large conduits that allow for groundwater emergence and in "free draining or dammed" type karst springs (Ford and Williams 2007). Cave springs ecosystems can support a wide range of biota.